New method of obtaining magnetic nanoparticles

Ural Federal University scientists, together with researchers from Bangladesh Engineering University and other colleagues, published an article in which they described a new method of obtaining magnetic nanoparticles.

Magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized in a “green” way using Ipomoea Aquatica leaf extract, where biomolecules acted as a stabilizer and reducing agent. Illustration: Aslam Hossein

They are currently used in a wide variety of fields: in biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging, data storage systems, environmental remediation technologies, magnetically controlled fluids, various detectors and immunoassay systems.

The creation of nanomaterials is a rapidly growing trend. Like any other industry, it tends to be closer to nature. Scientists are developing environmentally friendly ways to produce nanomaterials, for instance, the so-called “green” synthesis, which involves the use of plant extracts.

However, the substances contained in natural materials are often unstable and quickly enter into redox reactions with environmental components, which leads to the need to look for suitable stabilizers that are essential substances for newly synthesized nanoparticles. It has become one of the goals of research conducted by Ural scientists.

Inorganic substances such as iron chloride and sodium hydroxide have been chosen for the synthesis of iron oxide particles since they are more stable than pure metallic ones. Scientists have also used the extract of water spinach leaf (Ipomoea Aquatica), a plant from the bindweed family, as a stabilizer and reducing agent that avoids the adhesion of particles and maintains their small size.

“A detailed study of the basic properties of the nanoparticles obtained has shown that they meet all the standards for this type of particle. However, the new method involves the use of vegetable raw materials, which makes it environmentally friendly,” said Ural Federal University research engineer Aslam Hossein.

In addition to the ecological nature of the synthesis, Ural Federal University researchers have also paid attention to the different properties of the nanoparticles obtained. The ratio of the particle surface to its volume plays an important role. The larger the ratio, the better the reactivity of the magnetic nanoparticle, because more atoms are on its surface. This is relevant for many fields, including biology and medicine. The group has also investigated the magnetic properties of nanoparticles stabilized by the extract of Ipomoea. For this purpose, at room temperature, the particles were placed in an external magnetic field, and their behaviour was examined. The experiments allowed to detect the manifestations of superparamagnetic nature. This is a particular form of magnetism, which is characteristic of nanoscale ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic particles.

Synthesized MNPs have a distinct antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as a superparamagnetic nature at room temperature. All of this allows them to be a potential biomedical material,” adds Aslam Hossein. Several studies have shown that the magnetic nature of nanoparticles increases the activity of medications. For example, Ural scientists conducted an experiment in which they demonstrated that the nanoparticles they produced inhibited bacterial growth.

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